Principles and Characteristics of the Gothic Style | Gothic architecture

Principles and Characteristics of the Gothic Style | Gothic architecture

Principles and Characteristics of the Gothic Style | Gothic architecture

The Gothic style flourished during the Middle Ages. It is the result of the development of the Romanesque architectural style, after the introduction of modern building techniques in relation to the Romanesque style and new building and construction methods in addition to the use of vaults for roofs instead of wooden ceilings and the use of pointed arches and the division of the continuous vault into several sections and other modifications and additions that led to the emergence of the Gothic style, which is famous for its enormous height And gigantic.

Do you know the characteristics of Gothic architecture? And do you know its features, materials used, and Gothic building techniques?

At a time when a type of architectural styles is famous and in each era a certain type of design emerges around which humanity wraps around and uses it in its homes and facilities, and among these architectural styles is the Gothic style, where the Gothic period is one of the most prominent periods of the Middle Ages. The human being, as it sought to highlight its strength at that time when the challenges in building the best and most powerful architectural facilities were at their height due to the emergence of the best architectural style. The Gothic style was named after the pointed Goths, and this is a good reflection of Gothic architecture. You see that the ends of the block always end with the pointed Goths. The term Gothic appeared in the 17th century and was first used by Christoforn.


Sections of Gothic architecture in the Middle Ages


Gothic architecture was divided into two parts:

1- From (1150 - 1300) is the period of the first Gothic architecture, which is called the period of early Gothic architecture, in which emphasis was placed on the working structure of the block and the structural system of buildings and their development.

2- From (1300 - 1500) it is the second period of Gothic architecture which is called the period of late Gothic architecture.


Factors that helped Gothic architecture flourish


There are several factors that made the Gothic style grow and flourish during the medieval period, including the following:

- Geographical aspect: Europe split into several regions and states in the twelfth century, as France, Italy and Spain separated and became independent countries.

- Climatic and geological aspects: The difference in climate and weather from northern to southern Europe helped to define architectural features in the Gothic style, such as sloping roofs to drain snow and rainwater, to determine building openings and the fall of shade on the walls using the cornice. The nature of the lands influenced the use of building materials in the Gothic style such as the use of white marble from quarries in Italy and stones from France.

- The religious and societal aspect: the clergy had the greatest impact on society at that time, and this was reflected in the architectural features of this style, and the need to establish cities with full services was a very important matter after the emergence of the revolutions, so this created speed and great competition between countries to build cities for their societies.

read also: The architecture of the ancient Egyptian civilization


Characteristics of Gothic Architecture


archiphiloBefore talking about the characteristics of the Gothic style we will talk about the saying of the architectural historians when talking about the characteristics of Gothic architecture. The height of the Gothic cathedral astonished everyone who looked at it. This focus on verticality and light made it a feature of Gothic architecture, as this style was interested in the general structure of the facility in order to be able to reach its highest estimated height, and we see this clearly in all Gothic cathedrals as it uses flying pillars, cluster columns, and polygonal arches. Pointed to allow the cross-shaped cathedral to reach its maximum height. Gothic churches were ornate and decorated delicately, and the architects were proficient in the art of sculpture and drawing at that time, and now let us know the most important characteristics of the Gothic style:


- Height: One of the features and advantages of Gothic architecture is the tremendous rise of its churches and the cathedral. The aim of this verticality in architecture was to indicate the aspiration to reach the sky. The longest part in the parts of the churches is usually the nave, and then the architectural gradient begins with the general body of the church, and the height and verticality are emphasized by the Gothic church spires. To reach the highest possible height, the architects in the Gothic style used a number of construction techniques, including supporting the main columns of the church through other external pillars supporting the building, which are called flying pillars. Height.


- Light and windows: Gothic architecture is characterized by wide windows, and the increase in its size was associated with the use of the corrugated vault. This technique used by the Goths allowed them to create large windows in contrast with the Roman period. Examples of wide Gothic windows are St. Chapelle Church and Gloucester Cathedral. Fusion and Max Dvorak, two of the most prominent figures, considered the large windows the most universal feature of the Gothic style.

- Crusader plan: Most of the Gothic churches and cathedrals took the form of their plan from the Latin cross plan, and from the inside, there is a long nave representing the body of the church in addition to a side extension from both sides of the nave representing two aisles, while the front extension of the nave is the end of the altar. Some churches like Notre Dame have double side aisles.

- Power and majesty: One of the most important characteristics of the Gothic style is the dominant power over the general architectural complex, and this matter is evident in the main façade of the Gothic church. The façade is soaring, with bell towers on either side of the façade, emphasizing strength and majesty.


Principles and Characteristics of the Gothic Style | Gothic architecture

Shapes of Gothic arches in the Gothic style


- Equilateral Arch : Numerous Gothic openings lay on the asymmetrical shape. As it were, the point at which the curve is put, the span is actually the width of the gap, and the focal point of each bend matches with the point from which the relating circular segment radiates. This makes the curve higher concerning its width than a crescent curve which is actually half as high as it is wide. The equivalent exhibition curve gives a wide opening and acceptable proportion valuable for entryways, enlivening arcades, and enormous windows. The symmetrical curve fills itself with the themes of straightforward symmetrical, round, and semi-roundabout themes. The kind of beautification that created to occupy these spaces is known in England with mathematical ornamentation in the Gothic style and can be seen with astounding impact in numerous English and French basilicas, especially Lincoln and Notre Dame in Paris. The windows of a perplexing plan and at least three lights or vertical segments are frequently built by covering at least two equivalent curves.


- Lancet Arch :The least complex structure is the long opening with a sharp curve referred to in England as the lanceolate. Lancet openings are regularly assembled, generally a gathering of three or five. Lancet openings might be exceptionally tight and pointedly characterized. Lancet curves are typically characterized as two-focused curves whose sweep is more prominent than the bend length.


- Flamed Arch : A flashy bend is one that is figured with four focuses, the head of each significant curve transforming upwards into a littler circular segment and meeting at a sharp fire like a point. These curves make a rich and lively impact when utilized for window trim and surface adornment. The model is basically feeble and is seldom utilized for enormous openings except if it is contained inside a bigger, more steady circular segment. Doesn't work at all for the storm cellar.


- Depressed arch : The discouraged or four-pivot curve is a lot more extensive than its tallness and gives a special visualization subsequent to being smoothed under tension. Its structure is accomplished by detailing two curves rising strongly from every waterway point on a little sweep and afterward changing into bends with a wide span and a much lower beginning stage. 

If you liked the article and benefited from it, you might also like this: Uses of Groin vault in modern architecture

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